A. Clinton MacKinney, MD, MS

Deputy Director, Rural Telehealth Research Center

Deputy Director, RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis

Phone: 320.363.8150
Fax: 319.384.4371
Email: clint-mackinney@uiowa.edu

Department of Health Management and Policy
University of Iowa
105 River Street, N200 CPHB
Iowa City, IA 52246


Completed Projects - (3)

  • Impact of Payment Policy on Access to Physician Care in Rural America
    Profiles of physician practices will be constructed that specify the percent of payments derived from specific current procedural terminology (CPT) codes, dichotomized into evaluation and management (often considered to define primary care) or procedural. Differences across rural practices and between rural and urban practices will be analyzed, with implications for payment policies intended to reward rural primary care.
    Research center: RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Topics: Health services, Medicare, Physicians
  • Rural-Urban Physician Payment Differences Across the Nation: Methodological Changes
    This project will simulate the effects of changes to the methodologies used to calculate the three geographic practice cost indices currently used to adjust physician payment across the 89 Medicare payment areas in the U.S. and territories. Changes to the payment formula will be analyzed to determine potential impact on payment across areas and revenues for rural physician practices.
    Research center: RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Topics: Medicare, Physicians, Workforce
  • The Rural MACRA Experience
    The Rural MACRA Experience project studied rural effects of the new Medicare Quality Payment Program (QPP) implementation and operation. Rural QPP effects included provider eligibility, program preparation and data collection challenges, data analysis bias, and differential fiscal impact.
    Research center: RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Topics: Healthcare financing, Medicare, Physicians

Publications - (54)

  • Accountable Care Organizations in Rural America
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 07/2013
    This policy brief reports that Medicare Accountable Care Organizations currently operate in 16.7% of all U.S. non-metropolitan counties.
  • After Hospital Closure: Pursuing High Performance Rural Health Systems without Inpatient Care
    RUPRI Health Panel: Rural Policy Analysis and Applications
    Date: 06/2017
    A new paper describing opportunities for rural communities to develop a high performance rural health system after hospital closure, including three case studies that describe real-world transitions from hospital-based locus of care to new models of care delivery in rural places.
  • Are Primary Care Practices Ready to Become Patient-Centered Medical Homes?
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 2013
    Measures the readiness of rural primary care practices to be eligible as patient-centered medical homes (PCHMs) by comparing PCHM readiness scores with metropolitan and nonmetropolitan primary care practices.
  • Area Wage Index of the Medicare Inpatient Hospital Prospective Payment System: Perspectives, Policies, and Choices
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 08/2000
    This policy paper summarizes the positions of various rural health advocates and records the actions taken by Congress and the Health Care Financing Administration to improve the wage index. Finally, it outlines the research needed to energize the policy discussion of the uses and methods of calculating the hospital wage index.
  • Assessing the Impact of Rural Provider Service Mix on the Primary Care Incentive Payment Program
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 12/2013
    Under the Primary Care Incentive Payment Program (PCIP), if certain evaluation and management services represented 60% or more of Medicare allowable charges, the provider qualified for a 10% bonus calculated on the primary care portion of allowable charges. This brief assesses the impact of the rural provider service mix on the PCIP.
  • Assessing the Unintended Consequences of Health Policy on Rural Populations and Places
    Report
    RUPRI Health Panel: Rural Policy Analysis and Applications
    Date: 12/2018
    This paper explores the unintended consequences of health policy through an analysis of policy actions that have affected, or had the potential to affect, rural people, places, and/or providers in ways counteractive to policy intent.
  • Assessment of Proposals for a Medicare Outpatient Prescription Drug Benefit: The Rural Perspective
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 01/2003
    This policy paper assesses legislative proposals to add an outpatient prescription drug benefit to the Medicare program and their implications for the delivery of services and the welfare of beneficiaries in rural areas.
  • Care Across the Continuum: Access to Health Care Services in Rural America
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 12/2003
    This paper proposes that a continuum of care serve as the framework with which to consider rural healthcare policies, focusing on people and on places where people live rather than on the wants of providers and constituencies.
  • Care Across the Continuum: Access to Health Care Services in Rural America (2006)
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 2006
    The article is divided into 3 sections: 1) basic principles that determine services to be included in the continuum and how success in providing those services is judged; 2) definition of the continuum and its basic stages based on the health systems research literature; 3) applications of the continuum and policy implications of the framework.
  • Care Coordination in Rural Communities Supporting the High Performance Rural Health System
    Report
    RUPRI Health Panel: Rural Policy Analysis and Applications
    Date: 06/2015
    This paper examines care coordination programs and processes that affect rural areas to discover what is happening in rural communities, how various programs and approaches are working, who benefits, and to make policy recommendations that will facilitate care coordination efforts in support of high performance rural health system development.
  • Changes to the Merit-based Incentive Payment System Pertinent to Small and Rural Practices, 2018
    Policy Brief
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 11/2018
    This policy brief highlights key regulatory changes to the Merit-based Incentive Payment System that occurred in 2018. It discusses the implications of these changes with an emphasis on how these changes may affect small and rural practices.
  • Characteristics of Rural Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) - A Survey of Medicare ACOs with Rural Presence
    Policy Brief
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 05/2015
    In this policy brief, we present the findings of a survey of 27 rural accountable care organizations, focusing on characteristics important to their formation and operation.
  • Comments on the June 2001 Report of the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission: Medicare in Rural America
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 09/2001
    This paper comments on and critiques the findings in MedPAC's Medicare in Rural America.
  • Considerations for Defining Rural Places in Health Policies and Programs
    Report
    RUPRI Health Panel: Rural Policy Analysis and Applications
    Date: 05/2020
    Rural definitions in statute and policy are used to direct resources to underserved people. But changes in population behavior and census processes have led to concern about historic methods of defining rural. This paper identifies key questions, reviews rural definitions, and discusses options for reconsidering rural definitions.
  • The Current and Future Role and Impact of Medicaid in Rural Health
    RUPRI Health Panel: Rural Policy Analysis and Applications
    Date: 09/2012
    This report outlines and describes the current Medicaid program and its importance to rural America. It also discusses rural implications of program expansion, including whether and how states choose to implement changes.
  • Designing a Prescription Drug Benefit for Rural Medicare Beneficiaries: Principles, Criteria, and Assessment
    Maine Rural Health Research Center, RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 08/2000
    This paper offers a rural perspective on the debate about the design/implementation of a Medicare prescription drug benefit. Background information on rural Medicare beneficiaries' need for, and access to, prescription drugs is provided, along with a set of rural-oriented principles for use in evaluating how various proposals may meet rural needs.
  • Developmental Strategies and Challenges for Rural Accountable Care Organizations
    Policy Brief
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 02/2015
    This brief offers insights into the initial strategic decisions and challenges of four accountable care organizations (ACOs) with rural presences. These ACOs were formed as a step toward a value-driven rural delivery system. While several challenges need to be addressed, these insights can inform development of other rural ACOs.
  • The Effect of Medicare Payment Policy Changes on Rural Primary Care Practice Revenue
    Policy Brief
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 07/2014
    This policy brief describes the impact of recent Medicare payment updates to the Geographic Practice Cost Indices portion of the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule on rural primary care providers' practice revenue from Medicare.
  • Facilitating the Formation of Accountable Care Organizations in Rural Areas
    Policy Brief
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 07/2014
    This brief shows characteristics contributing to the formation of four accountable care organizations (ACOs) that serve rural Medicare beneficiaries, one each of the four census regions. The findings can help rural providers interested in forming/participating in an ACO assess the status and potential gaps of their core structures and capabilities.
  • From Health Care Volume to Health Care Value - Success Strategies for Rural Health Care Providers
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 04/2014
    Examines strategies that rural healthcare providers can use to improve healthcare quality for patients.
  • The Frontier Extended Stay Clinic Model: A Potential Health Care Delivery Alternative for Small Rural Communities
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 08/2013
    This policy brief describes how the Frontier Extended Stay Clinic model may be appropriate in rural communities beyond the five original demonstration sites.
  • Health Information Technology Workforce Needs of Rural Primary Care Practices
    WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 07/2014
    Assesses electronic health records and heath information technology workforce resources that are needed by rural primary care practices to manage the increasing patient populations.
  • The High Performance Rural Health Care System of the Future
    RUPRI Health Panel: Rural Policy Analysis and Applications
    Date: 09/2011
    This project describes a future rural system that would be built on foundations of affordability, accessibility, community focus, high quality, and patient centeredness.
  • Identifying Measures and Data Elements for the HRSA Evidence-Based Tele-Emergency Network Grant Program
    Policy Brief
    Rural Telehealth Research Center
    Date: 03/2020
    This brief details multi-project work to identify measures and develop data elements appropriate to emergency department-based telehealth, create an Excel-based tool, and systematically collect data from grantees in the Health Resources and Services Administration Evidence-Based Tele-Emergency Network Grant Program.
  • Improving Prescription Drug Coverage for Rural Medicare Beneficiaries: Key Rural Considerations and Objectives for Legislative Proposals
    Maine Rural Health Research Center, RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 06/2000
    This policy paper combines the work from current projects of the Maine Rural Health Research Center and the Rural Health Panel of the Rural Policy Research Institute to provide a statement of specific rural considerations and objectives for any proposal that would add a prescription drug benefit to the Medicare program.
  • Increases in Primary Care Physician Income due to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010--Continued Tweaking of Physician Payment
    Policy Brief
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 08/2010
    In this brief, the Affordable Care Act-authorized primary care payment adjustments are modeled in a prototypical rural primary care practice to assess both the potential impact on physician personal income and the likelihood that the changes will achieve the desired policy outcome.
  • Insuring Rural America: Health Insurance Challenges and Opportunities
    Policy Brief
    RUPRI Health Panel: Rural Policy Analysis and Applications
    Date: 07/2018
    This brief discusses a series of policy considerations in three main categories: policies related to rural insurance risk, policies related to provider networks, and policies related to rural payment rates and structures.
  • Medicare Accountable Care Organization Growth in Rural America, 2014-2016
    Policy Brief
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 03/2018
    This RUPRI Center data report describes Medicare accountable care organization (ACO) growth in non-metropolitan U.S. counties from 2014 to 2016. ACOs are the most widespread of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) value-based payment programs and demonstrations.
  • Medicare Accountable Care Organizations: Beneficiary Assignment Update
    Policy Brief
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 06/2016
    This brief updates Brief No. 2014-3 and explains changes in the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Accountable Care Organization regulations issued in June 2015 pertaining to beneficiary assignment for Medicare Shared Savings Program ACOs. Understanding ACO beneficiary assignment policies is dire in managing ACO providers and beneficiaries.
  • Medicare Accountable Care Organizations: Program Eligibility, Beneficiary Assignment, and Quality Measures
    Policy Brief
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 04/2014
    This brief discusses Medicare Shared Savings Program eligibility, participation requirements, and quality measures relative to accountable care organization formation.
  • Medicare Accountable Care Organizations: Quality Performance by Geographic Categories
    Policy Brief
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 11/2016
    Provides an analysis of the differences in Accountable Care Organization (ACO) performance on the quality measures among the Medicare Shared Saving Program ACOs with varying levels of rural presence. Findings suggest that ACOs with significant rural presence have performed as well as, if not better than, urban ACOs in delivering quality care.
  • Medicare Beneficiary Access to Primary Care Physicians -- Better in Rural, but Still Worrisome
    Policy Brief
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 01/2011
    In this policy brief, results from a large national physician survey are used to assess U.S. primary care physician and general surgeon willingness to accept Medicare patients and physician-reported reasons for not accepting Medicare patients.
  • Medicare Physician Payment
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 01/2003
    This rural policy brief examines how the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale has replaced the 25-year-old Medicare CPR charge system.
  • Medicare Physician Payment Policy and the Rural Perspective (Final Report)
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 11/2008
    The RUPRI Center has examined the effects of Medicare payment changes on rural physician practice revenue. We infer that changes to practice revenue potentially affect physician decisions regarding rural practice. This report presents the results of the center's work and provides a framework for understanding this continuing policy question.
  • Medicare Physician Payment: Impacts of Changes on Rural Physicians
    Policy Brief
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 09/2006
    This policy brief provides an overview of the effects of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 on physician payment rates in rural areas. The brief discusses the effects of the Medicare incentive payment for providing services in shortage areas and of the bonus for practicing in a physician scarcity area.
  • Medicare Physician Payment: Practice Expense
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 10/2003
    This rural policy brief examines the physician practice expense component of Medicare payment, which proportionately results in greater geographic physician payment variation than does the physician work payment. The practice expense adjustment warrants careful validation to demonstrate that the index measures actual geographic cost differences.
  • Medicare Value-based Payment Reform: Priorities for Transforming Rural Health Systems
    Report
    RUPRI Health Panel: Rural Policy Analysis and Applications
    Date: 11/2015
    As Medicare moves to value-based payment, healthcare groups are made more accountable for patient health. But the changes have been concentrated in urban areas. Policies meant to strengthen rural health systems are complicating payment and delivery system reform in rural areas. This study examines ways to include rural areas in the changes.
  • Organizational Attributes Associated with Medicare ACO Quality Performance
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 07/2018
    Peer-reviewed paper evaluating associations between geographic, structural, and service-provision attributes of Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) participating in the Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP) and the ACOs' quality performance.
  • Organizational Attributes with Medicare ACO Quality Performance
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 05/2018
    Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of Medicare Shared Savings Program Accountable Care Organizations' (ACOs') quality performance found rural ACOs' score was comparable to those in other categories. ACOs with hospital-system sponsorship, larger beneficiary panels, and higher post-hospitalization follow-up rates had better performance.
  • Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010: Impacts on Rural People, Places, and Providers: A First Look
    RUPRI Health Panel: Rural Policy Analysis and Applications
    Date: 09/2010
    This report summarizes six issue areas of the Affordable Care Act and discusses implications for access to services and improving the health status of rural residents. The issue areas are health insurance coverage; Medicare and Medicaid payment; quality, financing, and delivery system reform; public health; healthcare workforce; and long-term care.
  • Patient-Centered Medical Home Services in 29 Rural Primary Care Practices: A Work in Progress
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 09/2011
    This brief discusses responses from 29 rural physician practices. When asked about the use of specific policies/procedures included as criteria to certify patient-centered medical homes, fewer of them would qualify in each of five domains, including access to care, population-based, quality, care management, and clinical information management.
  • Primary Care Clinician Participation in the CMS Quality Payment
    Policy Brief
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 04/2019
    Approximately 10% of primary care clinicians participate in Advanced Alternative Payment Models (A-APMs) and less than 30% of primary care clinicians participate in the Merit-Based Incentive Payment System. Metropolitan primary care clinicians are more likely to participate in A-APMs than nonmetropolitan primary care clinicians.
  • Redesigning Medicare: Considerations for Rural Beneficiaries and Health Systems
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 02/2001
    This book provides a framework to help shape proposals to redesign Medicare to the benefit of rural beneficiaries and providers. Chapters focus on equity, quality, choice, access, and cost.
  • Redesigning the Medicare Program: An Opportunity to Improve Rural Health Care Systems?
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 08/2000
    With this paper, the RUPRI Rural Health Panel is presenting a well-defined framework for what should be included in any discussion of Medicare policies.
  • Rural Assessment of Leading Proposals to Redesign the Medicare Program
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 05/2000
    This paper provides a critique of two proposals to redesign the Medicare program: the "Medicare Preservation and Improvement Act of 1999" and "The President's Plan to Modernize and Strengthen Medicare for the 21st Century." Rural implications of the proposals are discussed.
  • The Rural Hospital and Health System Affiliation Landscape – A Brief Review
    Policy Brief
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 11/2018
    The shift from traditional fee-for-service to value-based payment requires major capital investment. In this paper, we examine rural hospital and health system motivations for affiliation and present a non-exhaustive list of common affiliation structures with representative examples.
  • Rural Implications of the Primary Care Incentive Payment Program
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 06/2013
    This policy brief reports on eligibility among rural primary care providers for the Primary Care Incentive Payments established in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.
  • Rural Long-Term Services and Supports: A Primer
    RUPRI Health Panel: Rural Policy Analysis and Applications
    Date: 11/2017
    This paper provides policymakers and other interested stakeholders a primer on the fundamentals of the rural LTSS system, rural access to and use of LTSS, and the opportunities and limitations of current federal and state LTSS policy for advancing rural health system transformation toward a high-performing rural health delivery system.
  • Rural Physicians' Acceptance Of New Medicare Patients
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 08/2004
    Findings are presented regarding rural physicians' acceptance of new Medicare patients from an analyses of national survey data of urban and rural respondents, published studies, and results of a survey of state organizations representing physicians.
  • Rural Primary Care Physician Payment 2006-2009: What a Difference Three Years Doesn't Make
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 11/2009
    The analysis in this brief shows the impact of Medicare's Evaluation and Management (E&M) service valuation adjustment (implemented January 1, 2007) on two prototypical primary care practices—one providing only E&M services and the other providing a mix of procedures and E&M services.
  • Securing High Quality Health Care in Rural America: The Impetus for Change in the Affordable Care Act
    RUPRI Health Panel: Rural Policy Analysis and Applications
    Date: 12/2010
    The Affordable Care Act calls for the development of a National Health Care Quality Strategy and Plan (National Quality Strategy) that will affect healthcare that is delivered to millions of Americans who live in rural areas and thousands of healthcare providers who care for them.
  • Trends in Hospital Network Participation and System Affiliation, 2007-2012
    Policy Brief
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 2014
    Network participation and system affiliation are two ways for hospitals to build and/or access necessary capacities to engage in the transformation to an integrated, patient-centered, pay-for-value care delivery model. This brief tracks trends in network participation and system affiliation among U.S. general community hospitals from 2007 to 2012.
  • Understanding the Impacts of the Medicare Modernization Act: Concerns of Congressional Staff
    Maine Rural Health Research Center, RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis, Upper Midwest Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 2005
    The most efficient mechanism for research to affect policy is to provide policy makers with information on issues about which they have voiced concern. The Rural Policy Research Institute's Health Panel conducted 2 focus groups with 16 congressional staff in 2004 to identify a set of researchable questions concerning rural healthcare.
  • Use of Health Information Technology in Support of Patient-Centered Medical Homes Is Low Among Non-metropolitan Family Medicine Practices
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 04/2011
    Are physician practices, especially non-metropolitan primary care practices, ready to become patient-centered medical homes? We use a nationwide survey of physician practices to partially answer this question, focusing on the use of health information technology.