Overview of the effects of the Medicare Prescription
Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act (MMA) of 2003 on
physician payment rates in rural areas. Discusses the
impact of creating a floor of 1.00 in the geographic
practice cost index (GPCI) for work expense and the
effects of the Medicare incentive payment (MIP) for
providing services in shortage areas and of the bonus for
practicing in a physician scarcity area.