Davis Patterson, PhD

Deputy Director, WWAMI Rural Health Research Center

Phone: 206.543.1892
Email: davisp@uw.edu

Department of Family Medicine
University of Washington
4311 Eleventh Ave NE, Suite 210
Seattle, WA 98105


Current Projects - (3)

  • International Medical Graduates on J-1 and H-1B Visas: Understanding Trends in their Contributions to Health Care Delivery for Rural Underserved Populations
    This study will identify trends and data needs regarding the contributions of international medical graduates' on J-1 and H-1B visas (IMGs) to rural health care delivery. A workgroup of IMG research and policy stakeholders will be established to help identify IMG supply data trends, needs, and pressing policy issues, lay the groundwork for potential areas of study, data integration and data collection, as well as strengthen the policy-relevance of our work.
    Research center: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Topic: International Medical Graduates (IMGs)
  • Prehospital Emergency Medical Services Personnel: Comparing Rural and Urban Provider Experience and Provision of Evidence-based Care
    This study will describe the relationship between prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) providers’ accumulated experience and provision of evidence-based care for rural and urban populations using newly available data on EMS agencies, personnel, and patient care.
    Research center: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: Allied health professionals, Emergency medical services (EMS), Health services, Workforce
  • What Impact Will Unified GME Accreditation Have on Rural-focused Physician Residencies
    The impending unification of allopathic and osteopathic graduate medical education (GME) under a single accreditation system has uncertain implications for small and rural-focused residency programs. This proposed study aims to (1) quantify the rural practice outcomes of residencies in rurally-relevant specialties such as pediatrics, internal medicine, obstetrics/gynecology, emergency medicine, surgery, anesthesia, and psychiatry, and (2) interview key stakeholders to identify anticipated challenges of the accreditation merger and potential policies to strengthen vulnerable rural-focused residencies during the transition.
    Research center: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Topic: Physicians

Completed Projects - (6)

  • Family Medicine Rural Training Track Graduates: Determinants of Rural and Urban Practice
    This project will survey physicians trained in “1-2” Rural Training Track (RTT) family medicine residencies to understand the characteristics, experiences, and attitudes that influenced their rural or urban practice choices.
    Research center: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Topic: Workforce
  • Influence of State Policies and Practices on J-1 Visa Waiver Physicians Service in Rural Areas
    This study will collect information from all states regarding their efforts to track IMG practice after their Conrad 30 program waiver obligations are satisfied, quantify long-term retention for states with available data, and assess how state policies shape IMG practice and long-term retention.
    Research center: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: International Medical Graduates (IMGs), J-1 Visa Waiver, Physicians, Workforce
  • Novel Master File of Rural Family Medicine Residency Training: Program Models and Graduate Outcomes
    This study expands current work by the WWAMI RHRC to establish a comprehensive database of rural-focused family medicine residency training programs. We will use this database to (1) create a typology of rural-focused family medicine training and (2) evaluate program graduates' outcomes and the success of different program models.
    Research center: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: Physicians, Workforce
  • Pre-hospital Emergency Medical Services Personnel in Rural and Urban Areas: Results from a Survey in Nine States
    This study uses a survey of all ground-based pre-hospital emergency medical services (EMS) agencies in nine states (AR, FL, KS, MA, MT, NM, OR, SC, WI) to examine supply and demand for emergency response personnel, the involvement of medical directors, and the availability of medical consultation, in rural and urban agencies.
    Research center: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: Emergency medical services (EMS), Workforce
  • Rural Training Track Technical Assistance Program
    This project looks into the Rural Training Track Technical Assistance (RTT-TA) Program which is a recognized model for addressing rural primary care physician shortages. The WWAMI RHRC has led the research component to investigate RTT program characteristics, graduate outcomes, and factors affecting RTT sustainability and resilience.
    Research center: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: Physicians, Workforce
  • What Is the Potential of Community Paramedicine to Fill Rural Healthcare Gaps?
    Community paramedicine (CP) has been promoted as a strategy to help communities achieve the Triple Aim of improving healthcare and population health while lowering costs. This study proposes to collect descriptive information on CP programs that can be identified in the U.S., and for those programs with outcome data, compare rural with urban programs in terms of their goals, services offered, outcomes measured, and results, where available.
    Research center: WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: Allied health professionals, Emergency medical services (EMS)

Publications - (21)

  • Access to Health Information Technology Training Programs at the Community College Level
    Policy Brief
    WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 11/2015
    Successful implementation of health information technology (HIT) in rural areas depends on the availability of a well-trained HIT workforce, and community colleges are key educational resources for producing this workforce. This study examined HIT workforce development programs in community colleges in order to increase understanding of the types of programs offered, describe the characteristics and sources of community college HIT curricula, highlight how these programs may be reaching underserved populations and students with limitations to accessing classroom-based courses, and identify barriers faced by these programs in achieving their HIT education goals. Information about the strengths and needs of the nation’s community college HIT education programs should help inform future HIT skills training programs and contribute to growing and strengthening the HIT workforce.
  • Access to Rural Home Health Services: Views from the Field
    Report
    WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 02/2016
    Access to home health care can be challenging for rural Medicare clients. Key informants for this study detailed obstacles, including financial, regulatory, workforce, and geographic issues. Rural communities will likely benefit from payment reforms that reward quality services while providing incentives to use best practices in home health care.
  • Community Factors and Outcomes of Home Health Care for High-Risk Rural Medicare Beneficiaries
    Policy Brief
    WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 10/2016
    Outcomes of care vary by region of the country for rural Medicare beneficiaries receiving home health services for high-risk conditions such as heart failure. Those in the East South Central and West South Central Census Divisions had lower rates of community discharge and higher rates of hospital readmission and emergency department use.
  • Conrad 30 Waivers for Physicians on J-1 Visas: State Policies, Practices, and Perspectives
    Report
    WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 03/2016
    States rely on international medical graduates (IMGs) to fill workforce gaps in rural and urban underserved areas. This study collected quantitative and qualitative information from states to assess how state policies and practices shape IMG recruitment and practice in underserved areas.
  • The Contributions of Community Colleges to the Education of Allied Health Professionals in Rural Areas of the United States
    Policy Brief
    WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 10/2012

    Describes where community college allied health education programs (of those most relevant to rural health care delivery) are located in relation to rural populations and small rural hospitals.

  • The Contributions of Community Colleges to the Education of Allied Health Professionals in Rural Areas of the United States (Final Report)
    WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 10/2012
    Community colleges educate a significant portion of the nation's allied health workforce (including Health Information/Medical Records Technicians, Surgical Technologists, and Dental Assistants, to name a few), and because they have a history of educating residents of their communities for local jobs, are important to the economies of many rural communities.
  • Do Residencies that Aim to Produce Rural Family Physicians Offer Relevant Training?
    WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 09/2016
    Examines the rural-centric family medicine residencies, their training locations, and rurally relevant skills training provided. Rural training can promote rural practice, but the number of family medicine residencies with a rural focus, geographic distribution of training, and training content are poorly understood.
  • Family Medicine Rural Training Track Residencies: 2008-2015 Graduate Outcomes
    Policy Brief
    WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 02/2016
    This policy brief is the latest in a series tracking the rural practice outcomes of family physicians who have completed graduate medical education in Rural Training Track (RTT) residency programs.
  • Graduate Medical Education Financing: Sustaining Medical Education in Rural Places
    Policy Brief
    WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 05/2015
    Rural Training Track (RTT) graduate medical education (GME) programs have shown success at preparing family physicians for rural practice, but financial difficulties have contributed to program closures. This policy brief reports on a survey of RTT directors and administrators across the U.S. to understand their finances.
  • Graduates of Rural-centric Family Medicine Residencies: Determinants of Rural and Urban Practice
    Policy Brief
    WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 07/2016
    This study of graduates of family medicine residencies seeking to produce rural physicians identified influences on rural practice choice, including significant others, residency, and practice communities. Findings point to the need to sustain the preferences of physicians interested in rural practice and encourage this interest in others.
  • Health Information Technology Workforce Needs of Rural Primary Care Practices
    WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 07/2014
    Assesses electronic health records and heath information technology workforce resources that are needed by rural primary care practices to manage the increasing patient populations.
  • How Could Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants Be Deployed to Provide Rural Primary Care?
    Policy Brief
    WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 03/2016
    New (2014) rural enrollees in the insurance plans on federal and state exchanges are expected to generate about 1.39 million primary care visits per year. At a national level, it would require 345 full-time equivalent physicians to provide those visits. This study examines how different mixes of physicians, PAs and NPs might meet the increase.
  • Outcomes of Rural-Centric Residency Training to Prepare Family Medicine Physicians for Rural Practice
    Policy Brief
    WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 03/2016
    Among those with eight or more weeks of rural training, no single program characteristic or model offered sustained advantages over any other type in producing high yields to rural practice.
  • Prehospital Emergency Medical Services Personnel in Rural Areas: Results from a Survey in Nine States
    Report
    WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 08/2015

    This study uses a survey of all ground-based prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) agencies in nine states (AR, FL, KS, MA, MT, NM, OR, SC, WI) to examine supply and demand for emergency response personnel, the involvement of medical directors, and the availability of medical consultation, in rural and urban agencies. Compared with urban EMS agencies, rural agencies had lower staff skill levels, higher reliance on volunteers, higher vacancy ratios, and less access to oversight and skill maintenance through regular interaction with a medical director and online medical consultation during emergency calls. Agencies in isolated small rural areas were the most distinct from other rural and urban agencies, having the most volunteers (both EMS providers and medical directors) and paid staff vacancies.

  • Recruitment of Non-U.S. Citizen Physicians to Rural and Underserved Areas through Conrad State 30 J-1 Visa Waiver Programs
    Report
    WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 07/2015

    Conrad State 30 J-1 visa waiver programs (commonly called Conrad 30 programs) allow international medical graduates (IMGs) training in the U.S. on J-1 visas to remain in the U.S. after completing residency to provide healthcare for rural and urban medically underserved populations. This study collected information from state health department personnel, using both quantitative and qualitative methods, to characterize national trends in waivers and factors related to states’ successful recruitment of IMGs for the years 2000-01 through 2009-10. States varied greatly in the number of waivers used and in the resources devoted to operating the Conrad 30 program. Over the decade there was a shift away from rural primary care placements of IMGs toward non-rural specialist placements. States with larger populations gained an increasing share of J-1 visa waiver physicians during the decade of the 2000s. States devoting more staff to the Conrad 30 program recruited more physicians seeking waivers. Whether or not states charged applicant fees had no association with the number of waivers used.

  • Rural Residency Training for Family Medicine Physicians: Graduate Early-Career Outcomes
    WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 01/2012
    This policy brief describes the characteristics of family physicians who have completed graduate medical education in Rural Training Track (RTT) residency programs and their outcomes in terms of practice in rural communities, health professional shortage areas, and safety net facilities.
  • Rural Residency Training for Family Medicine Physicians: Graduate Early-Career Outcomes, 2008-2012
    WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 01/2013
    This policy brief provides an update on the rural and shortage area practice outcomes of family physicians who have completed graduate medical education in Rural Training Track (RTT) residency programs.
  • Supply and Distribution of the Behavioral Health Workforce in Rural America
    Policy Brief
    WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 09/2016
    This brief uses National Provider Identifier (NPI) data to report on the variability of the supply and provider to population ratios of five types of behavioral health workforce providers (psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, psychiatric nurse practitioners, counselors) in Metropolitan, Micropolitan and Non-core rural areas across the U.S.
  • Support for Rural Recruitment and Practice among U.S. Nurse Practitioner Education Programs
    Policy Brief
    WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 05/2014

    Describes nurse practitioner (NP) education programs across the United States to identify those actively promoting NP practice in rural areas; describes their use of education methods that may promote rural practice; and identifies barriers to recruiting rural students and providing rural NP clinical training. Programs reported that relocating or commuting to campus-based programs, limited rural training opportunities, and affordability were barriers for rural students.

  • Training Physicians for Rural Practice: Capitalizing on Local Expertise to Strengthen Rural Primary Care
    WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 01/2011
    This policy brief explains the challenges of ensuring sufficient numbers of well-prepared family physicians for rural communities and describes the Rural Training Track (RTT) Technical Assistance Program, a strategy to utilize local expertise in sustaining the “1-2” RTT as a national model for training physicians for rural practice.
  • What Is the Potential of Community Paramedicine to Fill Rural Healthcare Gaps?
    WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 11/2016
    This study collected information on rural community paramedicine in the U.S. programs to describe their goals, target populations, services offered, connections with local community providers and resources, outcomes measured, and results, where available.