This study presents a summary of water quality monitoring
data sources and models, identifies the gaps that
persist, and proposes the salient categories and types of
data that should be contained in a national water quality
monitoring database to accurately describe rural water
The lack of standardized data makes it challenging to
protect the public from unsafe waters in a variety of
Existing data is insufficient to produce national
estimates of water quality or to compare water quality in
rural versus urban areas.
The creation of a database and model(s) to monitor
and estimate water quality nationally, across both urban
and rural contexts, is warranted.
Data must be routinely collected at a fine scale of
representative geographic locations to produce national
estimates of water quality and/or assess differences in
water quality between urban and rural areas.
Statistical corrections for oversampling of highly
polluted areas may be applied provided these sites can be
differentiated from representative sites.
Rural and Minority Health Research Center
Daniel Kilpatrick, Jeremy Cothran, Stella Self, Dwayne Porter, Peiyin Hung, Elizabeth Crouch, Nicholas Yell, Jan Eberth