Maine Rural Health Research Center

Products

Listed by publication date. You can also view these publications alphabetically.

For a complete list of publications from the Center, which may include older publications and publications funded by other sources, please see the Center's website.

2017

  • Knowledge of Health Insurance Concepts and the Affordable Care Act among Rural Residents
    Policy Brief
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 07/2017
    Health insurance literacy is central to identifying eligibility for coverage and subsidies, choosing a plan, and using optimal healthcare services. This study examined rural-urban differences in knowledge and/or use of the Affordable Care Act Marketplaces; subsidies; the health insurance mandate; and health insurance terms and concepts.
  • Rural Opioid Abuse Prevention and Treatment Strategies: The Experience in Four States
    Policy Brief
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 04/2017
    Little is known about what states with large rural populations are doing to combat opioid use disorders (OUD) in rural communities. This qualitative study identified rural challenges to the provision of OUD prevention, treatment, and recovery services and explored promising strategies to tackle the opioid crisis in rural communities.
  • The Role of Public versus Private Health Insurance in Ensuring Health Care Access & Affordability for Low-Income Rural Children
    Policy Brief
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 01/2017
    Medicaid and CHIP have played a critical role in ensuring access to health coverage among children –particularly rural children. This study examines rural-urban differences in children’s access to care, and their families’ perceived affordability of that care among those enrolled in Medicaid or CHIP, and those with private insurance plans.

2016

  • Health Insurance CO-OPs: Product Availability and Premiums in Rural Counties
    Policy Brief
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 10/2016
    We describe regional distribution and market prevalence of CO-OP products in rural and urban counties, and compare the number of products available in counties with and without CO-OP plans in 2014 and 2015.
  • Are Rural Older Adults Benefiting from Increased State Spending on Medicaid Home and Community-Based Services?
    Policy Brief
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 06/2016
    Little is known about variations in the availability or use of Medicaid Home and Community-Based Services (HCBS) within states, across rural and urban areas. This study used national claims data to examine differences in HCBS use and expenditures among rural and urban older adult Medicaid beneficiaries receiving LTSS.
  • Health Information Exchange: A Strategy for Improving Access for Rural Veterans in the Maine Flex Rural Veterans Health Access Program
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 05/2016
    This paper reports on the design and implementation of a first-in-the-nation project to expand rural veterans’ access to healthcare by establishing a bi-directional connection between Maine’s statewide health information exchange (HIE) and Veterans Administration facilities and centers.
  • Adverse Childhood Experiences in Rural and Urban Contexts
    Policy Brief
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 04/2016
    This study was designed to address the gap in the literature examining rural-urban differences in adults’ exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and to inform health system initiatives geared toward mitigating the impacts of ACEs on rural populations.
  • Pilot Testing a Rural Health Clinic Quality Measurement Reporting System
    Policy Brief
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 02/2016
    More than 4,000 Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) serve the primary care needs of rural communities. Unfortunately, the Rural Health Clinic Program is plagued by a lack of data participating clinics. This reports on the results with a focus on assessing the feasibility and utility of the reporting system and quality measures for the participating RHCs.
  • Rural Opioid Abuse: Prevalence and User Characteristics
    Policy Brief
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 02/2016
    Opioid abuse is the fastest growing substance abuse problem in the nation and the primary cause of unintentional drug overdose deaths. This study examined the rural-urban prevalence of non-medical use of pain relievers and heroin in the past year and the socio-economic characteristics associated with their use and other risky behavior.

2015

2014

  • High Deductible Health Insurance Plans in Rural Areas
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 05/2014
    Using the 2007-2010 National Health Interview Survey, this study examines rural residents’ enrollment in high deductible health plans and the implications for evolving Affordable Care Act Health Insurance Marketplaces.
  • Implications of Rurality and Psychiatric Status for Diabetic Preventive Care Use among Adults with Diabetes
    Policy Brief
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 05/2014
    This brief examines patterns of diabetic preventive care use among adults with diabetes to determine whether these patterns vary according to respondents’ rural/urban residence or the presence/absence of a mental health diagnosis.
  • Integrated Care Management in Rural Communities
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 05/2014
    This study reviews the opportunities and challenges reform initiatives under the Affordable Care Act present for rural communities. The study assesses four types of organizational models for delivering integrated care management. Each model has different strengths and drawbacks, weighing for and against implementation in rural areas.
  • Profile of Rural Residential Care Facilities: A Chartbook
    Chartbook
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 05/2014
    This chartbook offers information on part of the rural long-term services and supports (LTSS) continuum—the residential care facility (RCF). Survey results identify national/regional differences between rural and urban RCFs, focusing on facilities, resident and service characteristics of RCFs, and the ability to meet the LTSS needs of residents.
  • Health Insurance Coverage of Low-Income Rural Children Increases and is More Continuous Following CHIP Implementation
    Policy Brief
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 03/2014
    This study found that following the Children’s Health Insurance Program’s implementation, health insurance coverage and continuity increased among low-income children, particularly for those living in rural areas. By CHIP’s maturity, coverage for rural children improved so much that their uninsured rate dropped below that of urban children.
  • Meaningful Use of the Electronic Health Records by Rural Health Clinics
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 02/2014
    This paper identifies the rates of electronic health record adoption among a random national sample of rural health clinics (RHCs) and the extent to which RHCs that have adopted an EHR are likely to achieve Stage 1 meaningful use.

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

  • Availability, Characteristics, and Role of Detoxification Services in Rural Areas
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 12/2009
    Few detox providers (n=235) serve rural America; 82% of rural residents live in a county without a detox provider. More than half of all rural detox providers serve patients across a 100-mile radius, making travel distances a barrier to outpatient care. Referral options to substance abuse treatment are limited, especially in isolated rural areas.
  • Few and Far Away: Detoxification Services in Rural Areas (Research & Policy Brief)
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 12/2009
    This policy brief finds that few rural detox providers exist; 82% of rural residents live in a county without a detox provider. More than half of all rural detox providers serve a 100-mile radius. Travel distances are a barrier to outpatient detox models. Referral options to substance abuse treatment are limited, especially in isolated rural areas.
  • Mental Health Services in Rural Jails (Policy Brief)
    Policy Brief
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 09/2009
    The prevalence of mental illness among prison and jail inmates has attracted increasing attention in both mental health and criminal justice circles.
  • Health Insurance Profile Indicates Need to Expand Coverage in Rural Areas (Policy Brief)
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 07/2009
    This brief provides information on the health insurance status of rural Americans, summarized from a more detailed chartbook. Analyses are based on the 2004-05 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey.
  • Profile of Rural Health Insurance Coverage: A Chartbook
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 06/2009
    Analyses of persons under age 65 from the 2004-05 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey reveal a greater proportion of rural vs. urban residents who are uninsured or covered through public sources. Uninsured rates are highest among adults over age 50 in the most remote rural places.
  • Rural-Urban Differences in Health Care Access Vary Across Measures
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 06/2009
    Higher uninsured rates and workforce shortages in rural areas suggest that rural residents face greater barriers to accessing healthcare than their urban counterparts. Analysis of the 2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey found mixed results.
  • Private Health Insurance in Rural Areas: Challenges and Opportunities
    Policy Brief
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 04/2009
    This brief discusses the challenges of expanding private coverage in rural areas and describes policy options to address them.
  • Rural Coverage Gaps Decline Following Public Health Insurance Expansions
    Policy Brief
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 02/2009
    This brief uses the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) to compare the health insurance coverage of rural/urban residents in 1997 and 2005 to assess how uninsured rates and sources of coverage have changed since SCHIP was enacted. The authors also discuss characteristics of the rural uninsured and the implications for health insurance reform.
  • Rural Children Don't Receive the Mental Health Care They Need
    Policy Brief
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 01/2009
    Controlling for other characteristics that affect access to care, rural children are 20% less likely to have a mental health visit than urban children. Having Medicaid or SCHIP increases the likelihood that a child will receive services, and this is pronounced in rural areas.

2008

2007

  • Distribution of Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities Across the Rural - Urban Continuum
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 10/2007
    This study examines the distribution of substance abuse treatment services across the continuum of rural and urban counties, identifying the type and intensity of services provided.
  • State Initiatives Funded by the Medicare Rural Hospital Flexibility Grant Program
    Maine Rural Health Research Center, North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Center, University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 10/2007
    This report explores activities funded by the Medicare Rural Hospital Flexibility Program (Flex Program) to strengthen the rural healthcare infrastructure and discusses which activities were considered most successful by state Flex coordinators.
  • Rural Inpatient Psychiatric Units Improve Access to Community-Based Mental Health Services, but Medicare Payment Policy a Barrier
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 08/2007
    This study investigates the characteristics/admission processes of inpatient psychiatric units (IPUs) in rural hospitals with less than 50 beds and the community-based services available to them when discharging patients. Reasons for developing IPUs, barriers to opening and operating a rural IPU, and factors leading some to close are also explored.
  • Rural Families More Likely to be Uninsured and Have Different Sources of Coverage
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 06/2007
    This research and policy brief examines patterns of health insurance coverage within rural families and compares family-level insurance status for rural and urban families.
  • Substance Abuse Among Rural Youth: A Little Meth and a Lot of Booze
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 06/2007
    This research and policy brief examines substance abuse among rural youth, with rural-urban comparisons of methamphetamine, oxycontin, and alcohol abuse.
  • The State Flex Program at 10 Years: Strengthening Critical Access Hospitals and Rural Communities
    Policy Brief
    Maine Rural Health Research Center, North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Center, University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 04/2007
    To understand the priorities/accomplishments of state Flex Grant Programs, the Flex Monitoring Team asked Flex coordinators to identify and discuss their states' three most successful initiatives in the last two years. Interviews were conducted with Flex coordinators and State Office of Rural Health staff in 45 states.
  • The Community Impact of Critical Access Hospitals
    Maine Rural Health Research Center, North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Center, University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 02/2007
    This policy brief discusses the findings of a project to understand the community involvement and impact of critical access hospitals and the Medicare Rural Hospital Flexibility Program (Flex Program).
  • Exploring the Community Impact of Critical Access Hospitals
    Maine Rural Health Research Center, North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Center, University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 01/2007
    This paper reports on a series of site visits to six diverse rural communities and critical access hospitals to assess the experiences and impact of these hospitals in responding to their community's health infrastructure needs.

2006

  • Integrating Primary Care and Mental Health: Current Practices in Rural Community Health Centers
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 10/2006
    This publication provides information on models for integrating mental health services in rural community health centers, viability of linkages between primary care and mental health providers, resources available, reimbursement, treatment philosophy, diversification, referral, and enhancement.
  • Quality and Performance Improvement Grant Activities Under the Flex Program
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 08/2006
    This paper describes quality and performance improvement activities proposed by states during the 2005 grant year under the Medicare Rural Health Flexibility Program.
  • Creating Program Logic Models: A Toolkit for State Flex Programs
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 04/2006
    This is a tool for planning, managing, reporting on, and assessing Flex Program goals, activities, and accomplishments; assistance in identifying/defining measurable outcomes; information linking state-level Flex Program strategies to measurable outcomes; and a consistent program-reporting framework to share results internally and externally.
  • A Review of State Flex Program Plans, 2004-2005
    Maine Rural Health Research Center, University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 03/2006
    This paper examines the objectives and project activities proposed by states in their Medicare Rural Hospital Flexibility Program (Flex Program) grant applications for Fiscal Year 2004 to strengthen the rural healthcare infrastructure in their states. It highlights recent trends in state Flex Program planning, development, and implementation.
  • Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Activities Funded by the Medicare Rural Hospital Flexibility Program
    Maine Rural Health Research Center, North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Center
    Date: 02/2006
    This paper describes the emergency medical services-related activities that the 45 states receiving funding from the Medicare Rural Hospital Flexibility (Flex) Program proposed to conduct in fiscal year 2004-05.
  • Rural Health Research in Progress in the Rural Health Research Centers Program, 10th Edition
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 02/2006
    This book provides policy makers with a concise source of rural health services research underway in the Rural Health Research Centers funded by the Office of Rural Health Policy and provides a context for legislation that affects rural health services and populations.
  • Rural and Frontier Mental and Behavioral Health Care: Barriers, Effective Policy Strategies, Best Practices
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 2006
    This report discusses barriers to mental and behavioral health service delivery in rural America. It includes model programs and model policy strategies for rural mental and behavioral healthcare delivery and discusses the roles that telehealth and that the State Offices of Rural Health should play in service delivery.
  • Rural Hospitals and Long-Term Care: the Challenges of Diversification and Integration Strategies
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 2006
    There are many contemporary challenges experienced by older rural residents and their communities in accessing and providing services. However, the issue is not in comparing rural older adults to their urban counterparts; rather, it is that rural people have unique characteristics that must be considered when planning and providing services.
  • Rural Residents More Likely to be Underinsured
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 2006
    Studies have shown that rural residents have high uninsured rates. However, even those with private health insurance coverage can be at risk of having high out-of-pocket healthcare costs. Understanding the degree to which rural residents are underinsured has important implications for rural health policy and practice.
  • Smallest Rural Hospitals Treat Mental Health Emergencies
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 2006
    This research and policy brief discusses the extent to which rural emergency rooms encounter and treat mental health patients.

2005

  • Out-of-Pocket Health Care Spending and the Rural Underinsured
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 12/2005
    This paper reports the results of a study to identify whether and to what extent there are rural-urban differences in underinsured rates among the privately insured, and, where differences exist, to understand what characteristics of rural residents are related to their likelihood of being underinsured.
  • Mental Health Encounters in Critical Access Hospital Emergency Rooms: A National Survey
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 09/2005
    This survey investigates the extent and types of cases that present with mental health problems in critical access hospital emergency rooms (ERs), as well as the resources available to ER staff for addressing such problems and what actually happens to these patients.
  • Scope of Services Offered by Critical Access Hospitals: Results of the 2004 National CAH Survey
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 03/2005
    Three years of data were used to examine services offered by critical access hospitals (CAHs). The authors investigated how the services offered by CAHs have changed, the role of network affiliations in the changes, and the reasons administrators gave for reported service expansions. They also looked at how services in CAHs have changed over time.
  • Rural Health Research in Progress in the Rural Health Research Centers Program, 9th Edition
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 02/2005
    This book provides policymakers with a concise source of rural health services research underway in the Rural Health Research Centers funded by the Office of Rural Health Policy. It provides a context for legislation current that affects rural health services and populations.
  • Comparing Patient Safety in Rural Hospitals by Bed Count
    Maine Rural Health Research Center, Upper Midwest Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 2005
    This report shares the results of a study to determine how patient safety rates, offered services, and patient mix vary by bed count among rural hospitals.

2004

2003

  • Health Insurance Coverage Of The Rural And Urban Near Elderly
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 10/2003
    This paper reports the results of a study that used data from the 1996-1998 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to address two principal research questions related to health insurance coverage for the rural near elderly.
  • Rural Health Research In Progress in the Rural Health Research Centers Program, 7th edition
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 03/2003
    This book provides policy makers with a concise source of rural health services research underway in the Rural Health Research Centers funded by the Office of Rural Health Policy. It provides a context for legislation current and proposed that affects rural health services and populations.
  • The Characteristics and Roles of Rural Health Clinics in the United States: A Chartbook
    Chartbook
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 01/2003
    This chartbook reports on a rural health clinics (RHCs) survey. Information was collected on many topics, including their characteristics/operations; their location relative to the underservice problems/rural access needs; their safety net functions; staffing, recruitment, and financial issues; and involvement in training healthcare professionals.

2002

2001

2000