Public health

Research Products & Journal Articles

Browse the full list of research publications on this topic completed by the Rural Health Research Centers.

Products – Freely accessible products include policy briefs, fact sheets, full reports, chartbooks, and interactive data websites.

Journal Articles – Articles in peer-reviewed journals may require a subscription or affiliation with a subscribing library. For these publications, Gateway lists the article citation, a brief summary, a link to additional information and access to the full-text of the article, if available.

2022

2021

  • Barriers to Aging in Place in Rural Communities: Perspectives from State Offices of Rural Health
    Policy Brief
    University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 11/2021
    This policy brief presents findings from an online survey of State Offices of Rural Health describing barriers for older adults in successfully aging in place in rural communities, and recommendations for how to improve the ability to safely age in place in rural areas of their states.
  • Examples of Statewide Age-Friendly Initiatives
    Policy Brief
    University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 10/2021
    The purpose of these policy briefs is to identify the extent of statewide programs to support aging in place or age-friendly environments and, within those, to identify the extent to which such programs have an explicit rural focus. The "Examples" document provides an overview of the initiatives identified in the "Environmental Scan."
  • Statewide Age-Friendly Initiatives: An Environmental Scan
    Policy Brief
    University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 10/2021
    The purpose of these policy briefs is to identify the extent of statewide programs to support aging in place or age-friendly environments and, within those, to identify the extent to which such programs have an explicit rural focus. The "Examples" document provides an overview of the initiatives identified in the "Environmental Scan."
  • Confirmed COVID-19 Cases, Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Counties
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis, Rapid Response to Requests for Rural Data Analysis
    Date: 08/2021
    This data brief shows the spread of COVID-19 confirmed cases across the U.S., highlighting metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties with confirmed cases of, and deaths from, COVID-19.
  • Preferences for Long-Term Care Arrangements Among Rural and Urban Older Adults
    Policy Brief
    University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 05/2021
    This study describes care preferences by rural and urban location and by demographic characteristics among rural residents.
  • Voices From the Field: A Qualitative Study of the Challenges and Promising Practices of Rural Public Health in Addressing HIV and Hepatitis C
    Journal Article
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 05/2021
    Interviewing public health professionals from six rural states, researchers examined the challenges involving HIV, HCV, and serving rural people who inject drugs and determined strategies to address those challenges.
  • Demographics and Disability Status of Adults Living Alone in Rural Areas
    Policy Brief
    University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 04/2021
    This policy brief examines how the types of people who live alone differ between urban and rural areas, focusing on differences in age and disability status.
  • Capacity of Rural Counties to Address an HIV or Hepatitis C Outbreak
    Policy Brief
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 02/2021
    This study examines rural-urban differences in state and local health department capacity to prevent, prepare for, and respond to an HIV or hepatitis C outbreak.
  • Opioid-Related Visits to Rural Emergency Departments
    Policy Brief
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 02/2021
    The purpose of this project was to compare rural and urban opioid-related emergency department visits. Data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample were used to examine rural and urban opioid-related visits over time and to compare the outcomes of these visits.
  • Rural HIV Prevalence and Service Availability in the United States: A Chartbook
    Chartbook
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 02/2021
    This chartbook examines 2016 HIV prevalence and the availability of HIV prevention, testing, and treatment services across the rural-urban continuum and by U.S. census region.
  • Rural-Urban Residence and Maternal Hepatitis C Infection, U.S.: 2010-2018
    Journal Article
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 02/2021
    This study uses data from the U.S. natality files to examine rural-urban differences in county-level rates of maternal infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) during 2010-2018. Findings can help inform implementation of community-level interventions to reduce maternal HCV infection and narrow rural-urban disparities.
  • Advancing Population Health in Rural Places: Key Lessons and Policy Opportunities
    Report
    RUPRI Health Panel: Rural Policy Analysis and Applications
    Date: 01/2021
    This paper advances policy discussion of population health in rural places, focusing on the role of rural healthcare organizations. Lessons from ongoing programs provide policy considerations. Medicare and Medicaid programs should prioritize staff and infrastructure development, flexibility in covered benefits, and further expansion of telehealth.

2020

  • Substance Use Among Rural and Urban Youth and Young Adults
    Policy Brief
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 11/2020
    This study uses national data to examine rural-urban differences in the rates of substance use among youth and young adults. Findings can help inform rural-specific prevention strategies and research targeting rural communities.
  • Metropolitan/Nonmetropolitan COVID-19 Confirmed Cases and General and ICU Beds
    Policy Brief
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 05/2020
    The spread of COVID-19 across rural areas has fueled concern about the availability of healthcare resources for dealing with the pandemic. This brief looks at a single measure of healthcare resources – hospital beds – and reports of current COVID-19 cases in a single week to assess the impact on rural facilities.

2019

  • Healthy People 2020: Rural Areas Lag in Achieving Targets for Major Causes of Death
    Journal Article
    Southwest Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 12/2019
    For the period 2007-2017 rural death rates were higher than urban rates for the seven major causes of death analyzed, and disparities widened for five of the seven. In 2017 urban areas had met national targets for three of the seven causes, while rural areas had met none of the targets.
  • Preventive Health Service Use Among Rural Women
    Policy Brief
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 04/2019
    This study used the National Health Interview Survey to examine differences in receipt of preventive health services among rural and urban women. It found that rural women are less likely to receive HPV vaccines and mammograms, even controlling for rural-urban sociodemographic and resource differences.
  • Rural-Urban Differences in the Decline of Adolescent Cigarette Smoking
    Journal Article
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 03/2019
    Comparing survey data from 2008-2010 with 2014-2016, we examined change over time in cigarette smoking among rural and urban adolescents. We found that both rural and urban rates declined, but the decrease was smaller in rural counties, which widened the rural-urban gap in adolescent smoking rates.

2018

2017

2016

2015

  • Implications of Rural Residence and Single Mother Status for Maternal Smoking Behaviors
    Policy Brief
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 11/2015
    This study finds rural mothers are more likely than urban mothers to smoke. The authors suggest policymakers consider extending insurance for smoking cessation programs through the Affordable Care Act and Medicaid. Programs at the local, state, and national levels also could help reduce disparities in smoking-related morbidity and mortality.

2014

  • The 2014 Update of the Rural-Urban Chartbook
    Chartbook
    North Dakota and NORC Rural Health Reform Policy Research Center
    Date: 10/2014
    This chartbook includes trends and disparities in urban/rural health. Reports on population characteristics include age, race and ethnicity, and poverty; risk factors such as smoking, alcohol use, and obesity; mortality data; health status measures such as adolescent births and total tooth loss; healthcare access/use; and mental health measures.
  • From Health Care Volume to Health Care Value - Success Strategies for Rural Health Care Providers
    Journal Article
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 04/2014
    Examines strategies that rural healthcare providers can use to improve healthcare quality for patients.

2013

2012

  • Receipt of Recommended Radiation Therapy Among Rural and Urban Cancer Patients (Summary)
    WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 10/2012
    This study examines whether rural patients with cancer are less likely than their urban counterparts to receive recommended radiation therapy. The study also identifies factors influencing rural versus urban differences in radiation therapy receipt.
  • Childhood Asthma in Rural-Urban Areas
    Policy Brief
    West Virginia Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 06/2012
    This policy brief examines how asthma may be related to rural areas adjacent or non-adjacent to larger population centers, to variation in measures of air quality, to varying levels of agricultural and animal production, and to other characteristics such as obesity, race/ethnicity, or health insurance.
  • Childhood Asthma in Rural-Urban Areas (Final Report)
    West Virginia Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 05/2012
    This report examines how asthma may be related to rural areas adjacent or non-adjacent to larger population centers, to variation in measures of air quality, to varying levels of agricultural and animal production, and to other characteristics such as obesity, race/ethnicity, or health insurance.
  • Water Fluoridation and Dental Health Indicators in Rural and Urban Areas of the United States
    Policy Brief
    West Virginia Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 01/2012
    This policy brief investigates the availability of fluoridated water across urban and rural settings.

2011

2010

2009

2008

2006

2004

2003

2002

  • Rural-Urban Differences in the Public Health Workforce: Findings From Local Health Departments in three Rural Western States
    Journal Article
    WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 07/2002

    Most local health departments or districts are small and rural; two thirds of the nation's 2832 local health departments serve populations smaller than 50,000 people. Rural local health departments have small staffs and slender budgets, yet they are expected to provide a wide array of services during a period when the healthcare system of which they are a part is undergoing change.

    This study provided quantitative, population-based data on the supply and composition of the rural public health workforce in 3 extremely rural states: Alaska, Montana, and Wyoming. The study focused on the relative supply of personnel in the principal public health occupational categories, differences across states in staffing levels, and difficulties experienced in recruiting and retaining personnel.

2001

2000

  • Effect of Market Reform on Rural Public Health Departments
    North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Center
    Date: 01/2000
    This study seeks to determine how rural health departments and the populations they serve have been affected by recent health system changes, especially Medicaid managed care.