Private health insurance

Research Products & Journal Articles

Browse the full list of research publications on this topic completed by the Rural Health Research Centers.

Products – Freely accessible products include policy briefs, fact sheets, full reports, chartbooks, and interactive data websites.

Journal Articles – Articles in peer-reviewed journals may require a subscription or affiliation with a subscribing library. For these publications, Gateway lists the article citation, a brief summary, a link to additional information and access to the full-text of the article, if available.

2019

2018

  • Health Insurance Marketplaces: Issuer Participation and Premium Trends in Rural Places, 2018
    Policy Brief
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 08/2018
    This brief assesses changes from 2014 to 2018 in average Health Insurance Marketplace plan participation and pre-subsidy premiums in rural and urban places. Insurance carriers reduced participation across both, while the gap between average premiums in expansion and non-expansion states is widening at a similar rate in rural and urban counties.
  • Distance and Networks: A Regional Analysis of Health Insurance Marketplaces
    Policy Brief
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 02/2018
    Using 2015-16 data on 15 Midwestern states, we examine the possibility that geographic distance to care plays a role in insurance issuer participation, premiums, and enrollment success through its effect on network adequacy and assess the moderating role that state-level policies on network adequacy standards and Rating Area design may have.

2017

  • Regulating Network Adequacy for Rural Populations: Perspectives of Five States
    Policy Brief
    University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 08/2017
    The purpose of this study was to examine how five geographically-diverse states with significant rural populations define "network adequacy" and the degree to which they consider rural issues when regulating networks.
  • Rural/Urban Analysis on Individual Insurance Market Topics
    Fact Sheet
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 08/2017
    Some special challenges face the development and sustainability of marketplace plans in rural areas. This data release provides some additional detail on some important topics, with particular importance to rural people, places, and providers.
  • Knowledge of Health Insurance Concepts and the Affordable Care Act Among Rural Residents
    Policy Brief
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 07/2017
    Health insurance literacy is central to identifying eligibility for coverage and subsidies, choosing a plan, and using optimal healthcare services. This study examined rural-urban differences in knowledge and/or use of the Affordable Care Act Marketplaces; subsidies; the health insurance mandate; and health insurance terms and concepts.
  • Rural Health Snapshot (2017)
    Rapid Response to Requests for Rural Data Analysis
    Date: 05/2017
    The Rural Health Snapshot (2017) updates the 2010 Rural Health Snapshot. The document is a data sheet that compares a selection of health and healthcare access indicators for populations in rural and urban areas.
  • 2016 Rural Enrollment in Health Insurance Marketplaces, by State
    Policy Brief
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 01/2017
    Cumulative county-level enrollment rates in Health Insurance Marketplaces (HIMs) in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas of each state, defined as the percentage of "potential market" participants selecting plans, are presented as of March 2016. States are separated by Medicaid expansion status.
  • Changing Rural and Urban Enrollment in State Medicaid Programs
    Policy Brief
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 01/2017
    Medicaid enrollment growth in 36 states is analyzed by rural and expansion status, pre- and post-Affordable Care Act (ACA). Enrollment growth was larger in expansion states but did take place in most states, with significant state-level variation in both groups. Metropolitan areas generally had higher growth than micropolitan and rural areas.
  • The Role of Public versus Private Health Insurance in Ensuring Health Care Access & Affordability for Low-Income Rural Children
    Policy Brief
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 01/2017
    Medicaid and CHIP have played a critical role in ensuring access to health coverage among children –particularly rural children. This study examines rural-urban differences in children's access to care, and their families' perceived affordability of that care among those enrolled in Medicaid or CHIP, and those with private insurance plans.

2016

  • Health Insurance CO-OPs: Product Availability and Premiums in Rural Counties
    Policy Brief
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 10/2016
    We describe regional distribution and market prevalence of Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan (CO-OP) products in rural and urban counties, and compare the number of products available in counties with and without CO-OP plans in 2014 and 2015.
  • Rural-Urban Differences in Insurer Participation for Marketplace-Based Coverage
    Policy Brief
    University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 08/2016
    This policy brief examines the differences between rural and urban counties in terms of the number and composition of insurers in Federally-Facilitated Marketplaces.
  • Health Insurance Marketplaces: Premium Trends in Rural Areas
    Policy Brief
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 06/2016
    Total Health Insurance Marketplace premiums have grown disproportionately in rural places in 2016. Urban counties have an average of 4.2 firms, while rural counties average 3.2 firms offering coverage through the HIMs. This causes concern since, at the county level, we find that as the number of firms increases, premiums increase at a slower rate.
  • Rural Enrollment in the Federally Facilitated Marketplace
    University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 06/2016
    Analyzes the differences in rural and urban enrollment rates in counties across 32 states by using data from the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation of the US Department of Health and Human Services.
  • Does ACA Insurance Coverage Expansion Improve the Financial Performance of Rural Hospitals?
    Policy Brief
    North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Center
    Date: 04/2016
    Views on how the implementation of the Affordable Care Act's (ACA) expanded insurance coverage is affecting the financial performance of rural hospitals. The study found that while respondents believe the expanded insurance coverage was the right thing to do for patients, they worried coverage may not be adequate to ensure access to care.

2015

  • Rural Adults Delay, Forego, and Strategize to Afford Their Pre-ACA Health Care
    Policy Brief
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 11/2015
    This study provides detailed information about rural-urban differences among adults younger than age 65 in perceived affordability of health insurance coverage and services prior to implementation of the Affordable Care Act.
  • Rural Disabled Medicare Beneficiaries Spend More Out-of-Pocket Than Their Urban Counterparts
    Policy Brief
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 11/2015
    Most beneficiaries seek added coverage to close the gap between the care they need and the costs covered by Medicare. This study evaluated rural-urban differences in out-of-pocket spending, supplemental coverage, and variation in spending by type of service.
  • Rural Enrollment in Health Insurance Marketplaces, by State
    Policy Brief
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 10/2015
    This brief compares cumulative enrollment totals in Health Insurance Marketplaces in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas by state and the percentages of potential market participants enrolled. Non-metropolitan enrollment rates were higher in several states. The analysis shows how well outreach/enrollment efforts targeting rural areas work.
  • Rural Enrollment in Health Insurance Marketplaces
    Policy Brief
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 07/2015
    This brief analyzes Health Insurance Marketplace enrollment outcomes for 2015 at rating area/county levels. Enrollment rates are reported by number of firms participating and for multiple geographic categories: population density, census region, and metropolitan status of the county. Rural/urban rates are often similar, but areas of concern exist.
  • Rural Women Delivering Babies in Non-Local Hospitals: Differences by Rurality and Insurance Status
    Policy Brief
    University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 06/2015
    This policy brief describes the extent to which rural pregnant women give birth in non-local hospitals and analyzes current patterns of non-local delivery by rural women's health insurance status and residential rurality.
  • Health Insurance Marketplaces: Early Findings on Changes in Plan Availability and Premiums in Rural Places, 2014-2015
    Policy Brief
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 05/2015
    Analysis of national county-level Health Insurance Marketplace (HIM) plan data for 2014 and 2015 shows there is no systematic pattern to rural experiences of HIMs, although some isolated places may be at risk for weak outcomes.
  • Rural Provider Perceptions of the ACA: Case Studies in Four States
    Policy Brief
    North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Center
    Date: 02/2015
    This brief summarizes the perceptions from rural providers in four states regarding the early effects of the Affordable Care Act, including changes to patient populations, financial health, and capacity for rural hospitals and rural federally qualified health centers.

2014

  • Best Practices for Health Insurance Marketplace Outreach and Enrollment in Rural Areas
    Fact Sheet
    North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Center
    Date: 12/2014
    Research suggests enrollment rates for those in rural areas was less than urban areas during the first Health Insurance Marketplace enrollment period. Interviews of navigators, health centers, and others in rural counties with high enrollment rates were conducted to uncover best practices for marketing, outreach/education, in-reach, and enrollment.
  • Successful Health Insurance Outreach, Education, and Enrollment Strategies for Rural Hospitals
    Policy Brief
    University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 11/2014
    This brief offers best practices for hospitals to use in health insurance outreach/enrollment based on interviews with administrators, staff, and community reps at 11 rural hospitals. It also discusses certified application counselors and the importance of collaborative community partnerships in conducting insurance enrollment outreach/education.
  • Geographic Variation in Plan Uptake in the Federally Facilitated Marketplace
    Policy Brief
    North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Center
    Date: 10/2014
    This brief combines the data on plan selection in the federally facilitated marketplaces with estimates of those likely to qualify for the marketplace to calculate the percentage of potential eligible individuals who chose a health insurance plan (the uptake rate). It contains a heat map showing the variation in uptake rates across the country.
  • Rural Implications of the Blueprints for State-Based Health Insurance Marketplaces
    Report
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 09/2014
    This report presents various states' approaches to the Health Insurance Marketplace, including service and rating areas, network adequacy requirements, rural consumer outreach, rural representation on the marketplace governing board, certification and oversight of Qualified Health Plans, and design of the Small Business Health Options Program.
  • Geographic Variation in Premiums in Health Insurance Marketplaces
    Policy Brief
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 08/2014
    This policy brief analyzes the 2014 premiums of health insurance plans available in the new marketplaces created by the Affordable Care Act.
  • A Guide to Understanding the Variation in Premiums in Rural Health Insurance Marketplaces
    Policy Brief
    RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis
    Date: 05/2014
    This brief provides a framework for assessing variations in the premiums of plans offered in the Health Insurance Marketplaces across geography.
  • High Deductible Health Insurance Plans in Rural Areas
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 05/2014
    Using the 2007-2010 National Health Interview Survey, this study examines rural residents' enrollment in high deductible health plans and the implications for evolving Affordable Care Act Health Insurance Marketplaces.

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2006

  • Premium Assistance Programs for Low Income Families: How Well Does it Work in Rural Areas?
    North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Center
    Date: 01/2006
    This paper reports the results of a study on the viability in rural areas of premium assistance programs use Medicaid or State Children's Health Insurance funding to subsidize the premium costs of employer-sponsored insurance or private non-group policies for eligible individuals.

2005

2003

2002

  • Diabetes and the Rural Safety Net
    Maine Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 01/2002
    This paper investigates the extent to which the rural safety net is able to meet the needs of people with diabetes.