Shawnda Schroeder, PhD

North Dakota and NORC Rural Health Reform Policy Research Center

Phone: 701.777.0787
Email: shawnda.schroeder@med.und.edu

Center for Rural Health
University of North Dakota
1301 N. Columbia Road, Stop 9037
Grand Forks, ND 58202


Completed Projects - (2)

  • Perspectives of Rural Hospice Directors
    Rural hospice care, as it is currently configured, is under pressure by a variety of factors (e.g., policy and regulation, economic and financial, and organizational and structural) which are reviewed in this document. However, a central core element of rural hospice remains the strong sense of community that is embodied in the system (i.e., typically a small non-profit arrangement) and design (i.e., a delivery system reliant on community connections and personal relationships) of care. This policy brief is the result of a national phone survey of rural hospice directors or key staff in 47 states. Fifty-three directors or key staff members were interviewed during a three-month period in 2013.
    Research center: North Dakota and NORC Rural Health Reform Policy Research Center
    Topics: Aging, Health policy, Health services, Quality, Telehealth
  • Use of Emergency Departments for Behavioral Health Related Care
    This project will study the prevalence of emergency department utilization for behavioral health diagnoses between rural and urban communities.
    Research center: North Dakota and NORC Rural Health Reform Policy Research Center
    Topics: Emergency medical services (EMS), Health services, Hospitals and clinics, Mental health

Publications - (8)

  • Exploring Rural and Urban Mortality Differences
    North Dakota and NORC Rural Health Reform Policy Research Center
    Date: 03/2016
    Contains visual aids which display indicators of mortality rates by cause of death, age group, rural-urban status, region, and sex for populations 15 years of age and older cross-referenced to tables and statistical results.
  • Hospice Workforce: An Annotated Review of the Literature
    North Dakota and NORC Rural Health Reform Policy Research Center
    Date: 11/2013
    This report contains an annotated review of hospice workforce literature published between 2000 and 2013. The review was completed to help identify hospice provider types for a hospice workforce study to be completed by the Rural Health Reform Policy Research Center.
  • Identifying Variability in Patient Characteristics and Prevalence of Emergency Department Utilization for Mental Health Diagnoses in Rural and Urban Communities
    North Dakota and NORC Rural Health Reform Policy Research Center
    Date: 10/2017
    Patients needing behavioral healthcare can get more appropriate, cost-effective treatment if they are redirected from emergency departments (EDs). This study examined whether a larger proportion of rural versus urban patients went to went to EDs.
  • Perspectives of Rural Hospice Directors
    Policy Brief
    North Dakota and NORC Rural Health Reform Policy Research Center
    Date: 03/2015
    Rural hospice care is under pressure by a variety of factors that are reviewed in this document. However, a central core element of rural hospice remains the strong sense of community that is embodied in the system and design of care. This policy brief is the result of a national phone survey of rural hospice directors or key staff in 47 states.
  • Rural and Urban Utilization of the Emergency Department for Mental Health and Substance Abuse
    Policy Brief
    North Dakota and NORC Rural Health Reform Policy Research Center
    Date: 06/2017
    Utilizes data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project’s (HCUP’s) State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) for seven states. Researchers explore, and describe in this brief, the use of the Emergency Department for mental health and substance abuse among Urban, Large Rural, Small Rural, and Isolated Small Rural residents.
  • Rural Hospice in the United States: A Review of the Literature
    North Dakota and NORC Rural Health Reform Policy Research Center
    Date: 10/2013
    This review explores the current environment of rural hospice care in the United States. It provides a discussion of the current structure of hospice services as well as a formal review of current (2000-2013) rural research on the topic.
  • Rural Hospice in the United States: An Annotated Review of the Literature
    North Dakota and NORC Rural Health Reform Policy Research Center
    Date: 10/2013
    This report provides an annotated review of hospice literature published between 2000 and 2013, including resources that have addressed rural hospice care, access, and utilization. The information begins with an overview of hospice organizations and agencies cited most frequently, along with a discussion of their most recent research.
  • Use of the Emergency Department for Mental Health and Substance Abuse among Women
    Fact Sheet
    North Dakota and NORC Rural Health Reform Policy Research Center
    Date: 07/2017
    This study identifies trends among women in rural and urban communities who utilize the emergency department for mental health and substance abuse. The information can be used to help communities provide more relevant, appropriate, and less costly care.