Janice C. Probst, PhD

Director, South Carolina Rural Health Research Center

Phone: 803.251.6317
Fax: 803.777.1836
Email: jprobst@mailbox.sc.edu

South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
University of South Carolina
220 Stoneridge Drive, Suite 204
Columbia, SC 29210


Current Projects - (3)

  • Identification of High-Need Rural Counties Lacking an FQHC Presence
    Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) have been key safety net providers since the program was initiated. However, many rural communities lack this resource. Expanding on the index of relative rural deprivation developed by the SCRHRC, we will identify high-need rural counties that currently are not served by an FQHC or similar provider.
    Research center: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: Critical Access Hospitals and Rural Hospital Flexibility Program, Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs), Rural Health Clinics (RHCs)
  • Rural Nursing Workforce: Current Educational Characteristics and Options for Improvement
    This project will examine the current distribution of nurses, subset by educational attainment, across the rural U.S. using data from Census Public Use Microfiles. Then a survey of the approximately 750 RN-to-BSN educational programs across the U.S. will identify the proportion of programs offering rural content or facilitating rural placement.
    Research center: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: Nurses, Workforce
  • Social Determinants of Health Among Minority Populations in Rural America
    This project will compile information from the U.S. Census, the Area Health Resource File, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation County Rankings data set into a comprehensive summary of key social determinants of health among rural populations: demographic characteristics, economic characteristics, health facility availability, and selected health outcomes.
    Research center: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Hispanics, Minority health, Rural statistics and demographics

Completed Projects - (28)

  • Adequacy of Ambulatory Care among Rural African Americans with Congestive Heart Failure, Diabetes or Asthma
    Research center: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: African Americans, Chronic diseases and conditions, Minority health
  • Adequacy of Home Health Care Availability in Rural Counties
    This project will describe current distribution of HHC agencies, by Zip Code and county of facility location and of service provision, across levels of rurality. Second, the project will estimate whether rural populations at risk for inadequate access to HHC, based on projected population need population / provider ratios.
    Research center: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: Aging, Home health
  • Characteristics and Educational Needs of Rural Acute Care Hospital Boards of Directors
    Rural hospital boards face challenges in an environment of increasing legal and financial complexity. This study will characterize rural hospital Board of Directors' backgrounds, perceptions of board function, and perceived need of training and development.
    Research center: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
    Topic: Hospitals and clinics
  • Characteristics and Utilization Patterns of Rural Dual-eligible Medicare Beneficiaries
    Persons who are eligible for both Medicare and Medicaid insurance coverage (dual eligible) represent 21% of total Medicare enrollment, but account for more than 36% of Medicare expenditures. The purpose of this study is to ascertain whether dual-eligible beneficiaries living in rural areas differ from their urban counterparts in demographic characteristics and Medicare expenditures.
    Research center: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: Medicaid and S-CHIP, Medicare
  • Chartbook: Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Health of Rural Populations
    This study will provide a cross-sectional, descriptive study that uses large, nationally representative data sets to illustrate health and health care among rural populations. The data sets to be used include the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, the 2005 National Health Interview Survey, and the Area Resource File.
    Research center: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: Health disparities, Minority health, Rural statistics and demographics
  • Colorectal Cancer Screening Bypass Behavior and Outcomes
    Studies have shown that increased distance to the closest endoscopy provider is associated with lower screening utilization among Medicare enrollees. The purpose of this study is to expand beyond the Medicare population to examine the travel behaviors of the entire population, comparing urban vs. rural residents in obtaining endoscopies for colorectal cancer screening.
    Research center: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: Health promotion and disease prevention, Medicare
  • Depression and Generalized Anxiety Disorder across Rural Populations
    Research center: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: Health disparities, Mental health, Minority health
  • Effect of Safety Net Providers on Ambulatory Care Sensitive Hospitalization Rates in Rural Counties
    This project will determine if the presence of a community health center or rural health clinic in a county reduces ambulatory care sensitive hospitalizations for children, working age adults, and older adults.
    Research center: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: Chronic diseases and conditions, Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs), Health services, Poverty, Rural Health Clinics (RHCs)
  • Effects of Alcohol Use on Educational Attainment and Employment in Rural Youth
    This study will examine the effects of alcohol use during the teen years on subsequent educational attainment and employment in a panel of rural residents.
    Research center: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: Children, Substance abuse
  • Effects of Uninsurance during the Preceding 10 Years on Health Status Among Rural Working Age Adults
    Utilizing data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the effects of long-term, continuous uninsurance on health status will be analyzed through a comparison of rural and urban populations who were between the ages of 14-22 in 1979.
    Research center: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
    Topic: Health insurance and the uninsured
  • Emergency Department Use by Medically Indigent Rural Residents
    Research center: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: Emergency medical services (EMS), Health insurance and the uninsured, Hospitals and clinics
  • Intensity of Service Provision for Medicare Beneficiaries Utilizing Home Health Services
    This study will assess whether Medicare beneficiaries in rural areas receive a lower intensity of home health (HH) services compared to their urban counterparts. Specifically, the study will examine (1) the distribution of levels of HH services for four conditions: joint (hip and knee) replacement, stroke, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and diabetes; (2) the distribution of type of provider for each condition across the levels of rurality; and (3) the median charge and payment per beneficiary for these services across the levels of rurality.
    Research center: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: Chronic diseases and conditions, Home health, Medicare
  • Mode of Travel and Actual Distance Traveled for Medical or Dental Care by Rural Residents
    This project examined the influence of race and rural isolation on distance traveled to receive medical or dental care, and how the potential interaction of these factors might exacerbate disparities in access to care.
    Research center: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: Dental health, Health disparities, Health services, Minority health
  • Post-Hospital Transitions in Care Among Dually-Eligible Medicare Beneficiaries
    This project will examine the hospitalization rates, post-discharge physician follow-up, and subsequent readmission rates among Medicare beneficiaries who are also enrolled in Medicaid. We will examine these dual-eligible beneficiaries by level of rurality to determine if residence is a significant factor in these rates. We will also control for co-morbidities, county characteristics, and other factors related to readmission rates.
    Research center: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: Health policy, Hospitals and clinics, Medicare
  • Premature Mortality: Potential Role of Health Insurance in Moderating Race/Ethnicity and Rural/Urban Disparities
    This project will explore the degree to which lack of health insurance may contribute to high mortality rates among rural minority men and women aged 45-64.
    Research center: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: Health insurance and the uninsured, Minority health
  • Profiling Health and Health Resource Availability in U.S. – Mexico Border Counties
    This project will augment a previous SCRHRC chartbook on Border health with additional information on health resources and health outcomes in US counties adjacent to Mexico.
    Research center: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: Border and international health, Minority health
  • Racial and Rural Differences in Cervical Cancer Screening Practices
    The purpose of this study is to describe and compare racial and rural differences in cervical cancer screening practices using data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. The findings will inform policies to increase appropriate access to quality cancer-preventive services.
    Research center: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: Health promotion and disease prevention, Minority health, Women
  • Rapid Research Response on Health Care Reform Issues
    The focus of the SC Rural Health Research Center is on investigating persistent inequities in health status within the population of the rural US, with an emphasis on inequities stemming from socioeconomic status, race and ethnicity, and access to healthcare services. Building on existing expertise, the SC Rural Health Research Center will create an internal process that allows for rapid turnaround of analysis on race/ethnicity and rural-based health disparity inquiries from policymakers.
    Research center: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: Health policy, Healthcare financing
  • Rural and Urban Differences in Case-Mix Among Recipients of Home Health Care
    We will examine current patient case-mix for the Medicare population receiving skilled health care from a home health agency to determine if there are rural or race/ethnicity-based disparities with regards to receipt of services and clinical acuity indicators.
    Research center: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: Health disparities, Home health, Medicare
  • Rural Area Deprivation and Hospitalizations Among Children for Ambulatory Sensitive Conditions
    Rural areas with reduced social and economic resources may be particularly vulnerable to inadequate primary care for children.
    Research center: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: Children, Health disparities, Hospitals and clinics
  • Rural Border Chartbook
    This chartbook is the first study to examine the health status of residents living in US counties that border Mexico as a single region rather than as four distinct state areas. We examined select health status indicators among residents of the four border states, Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas, comparing indicators by ethnicity (Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic), rurality (rural vs. urban), and proximity to border (border vs. non-border).
    Research center: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: Border and international health, Hispanics, Minority health
  • Rural EMS Infrastructure
    Research center: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: Emergency medical services (EMS), Frontier health
  • Rural Health Center Expansion and Recruitment Survey
    This collaborative project between WWAMI and the South Carolina Rural Health Research Centers examined and described the current staffing needs of rural health centers (HC), ascertained the staffing, recruitment, and retention issues that HC CEOs regard as most critical; distinguished how issues differ between CEOs contemplating development of expansion sites versus those who are not; and described how these findings correlate with the literature and current national supply projections for the categories of health professions needed by the HCs.
    Research centers: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center, WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs), Rural Health Clinics (RHCs), Workforce
  • Rural Minority Health: A Comprehensive Assessment
    This study will profile demographics of rural African Americans by region of the U.S.; describe clinical problems prevalent in rural African American populations; explore available health care facilities and practitioners in rural areas; investigate outpatient treatment provided to rural African American populations by type of practitioner; explore expenditures for health care among rural African Americans by region of the U.S.; and determine barriers to care such as insurance, provider availability, and health beliefs and behaviors.
    Research center: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: African Americans, Health disparities, Minority health, Rural statistics and demographics
  • Rural Minority Health: A Comprehensive Assessment of Health Status, Health Care Utilization and Barriers to Care among Rural Minorities
    Research center: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: Health disparities, Minority health, Rural statistics and demographics
  • Transitions in Care for Rural Medicare Beneficiaries with Diabetes
    Hospital readmission rates among persons with diabetes, as well as absolute admission rates, may be used to study health disparities among rural and minority populations. This project will use data from the Medicare Chronic Conditions Data Warehouse to explore residence- and race-based disparities in diabetes admission rates, effective transitions to outpatient care, and re-admission rates, to help guide rural policy-makers and health care providers.
    Research center: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: Chronic diseases and conditions, Health disparities, Medicare, Minority health
  • Trends in Rural Children’s Health and Access to Care
    The past ten years have seen positive trends in the availability of health insurance coverage for children, coupled with worsening trends for poverty. This project will examine data from three iterations of the National Survey of Children’ Health (2003, 2007, 2012) to see whether rural children have benefitted equally from any improvements in health insurance, health care use, and health status.
    Research center: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: Children, Health insurance and the uninsured
  • Trends in Uninsurance Among Rural Minority Children
    This project analyzed trends in health insurance coverage and health services utilization among rural children, in order to ascertain whether the S-CHIP program has positively affected rural children, and whether all rural children, including minority children, have benefited equally.
    Research center: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center
    Topics: Children, Health insurance and the uninsured

Publications - (82)