For Amber "Waives" of Grain: The Impact of Medicaid Managed Care Waiver Programs on Care Choices in Rural America
The number of states using waivers to place Medicaid enrollees in managed care plans is increasing. Across the states, there are currently 121 Section 1115 and 1915(b) waivers in either pending or approved status; 42 approved and 21 pending Section 1115 waivers, and 58 Section 1915(b) waivers, all of which are approved. Federal regulations require that states must provide the choice of at least two managed care programs for all Medicaid enrollees unless an exception for rural residents is declared in the waiver. In that case, states may restrict choice to only one managed care program. At present, the number of states applying choice waivers to rural populations, as well as the perceived effects of provider restrictions when only one care plan is available in a county, are not known.
This project will use a combination of systematic review of waiver content and structured interviews with key informants to assess the potential for rural disparities in access to care for Medicaid enrollees. All approved and pending waivers will be analyzed and categorized. Interviews with knowledgeable state contacts, identified for each state by personnel at the local State Office of Rural Health, will be used to understand the state decision-making process underlying the use/non-use of rural waivers and to ascertain local policy-makers assessment of the effects of the waivers on rural Medicaid populations.