Gina Keppel, MPH

WWAMI Rural Health Research Center


University of Washington

Publications - (2)

  • Assessing Rural-Urban Nurse Practitioner Supply and Distribution in 12 States Using Available Data Sources
    Policy Brief
    WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 08/2015

    This study compared estimates of nurse practitioner (NP) supply in 12 states (statewide and rural vs. urban) derived from two sources: state license records and National Provider Identifier (NPI) data. Estimates of state NP supply from license data were found to be higher than NPI-derived estimates for most, but not all states. While data from both license and NPI sources can be useful for health workforce planning, the limitations of each source should be acknowledged and workforce comparisons should be limited to estimates derived from the same types of data.

  • Conrad 30 Waivers for Physicians on J-1 Visas: State Policies, Practices, and Perspectives
    WWAMI Rural Health Research Center
    Date: 03/2016
    States rely on international medical graduates (IMGs) to fill workforce gaps in rural and urban underserved areas. This study collected quantitative and qualitative information from states to assess how state policies and practices shape IMG recruitment and practice in underserved areas.