H. Ann Howard, BA

North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Center

Email: ann_howard@unc.edu

University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill
Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research
CB# 7590
Chapel Hill, NC 27599


Publications - (20)

2020

  • 2016-18 Profitability of Urban and Rural Hospitals by Medicare Payment Classification
    Policy Brief
    North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Center
    Date: 04/2020
    This study compares the 2016-18 profitability of urban Prospective Payment System (PPS) hospitals to that of rural hospitals. Rural hospitals are further divided by size of rural PPS hospitals and by the rural Medicare payment classifications.
  • Geographic Variation in the 2018 Profitability of Urban and Rural Hospitals
    Policy Brief
    North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Center
    Date: 04/2020
    This study describes the geographic variability in 2018 profitability of Critical Access Hospitals, other rural hospitals, and urban Prospective Payment System hospitals by census region, census division, and state.
  • Rural Hospitals with Long-Term Unprofitability
    Policy Brief
    North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Center
    Date: 04/2020
    The purpose of this study is to examine the characteristics of rural hospitals that had negative total margins in 2016, 2017, and 2018. We examined net patient revenue, Medicare payment classification, region, and state for 311 rural hospitals.
  • Understanding the Broader Context of Rural Hospitals and Profitability
    North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Center
    Date: 04/2020
    The intent of this infographic is to quantify rural hospital profitability in the broader context of all hospitals. This infographic compares the number of rural and urban hospitals and rural and urban operating revenue and operating income.

2019

  • Rural/Urban and Regional Variation in the 2019 CMS Hospital Wage Index
    Policy Brief
    Rapid Response to Requests for Rural Data Analysis
    Date: 05/2019
    This brief describes the geographic variation of the 2019 Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services hospital wage index by rural/urban definition, census region, Frontier and Remote Area codes and state.

2018

  • Rural Hospital Mergers from 2005 through 2016
    Policy Brief
    North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Center
    Date: 08/2018
    This brief describes the number and geographic distribution of rural hospital mergers from 2005-2016.
  • Geographic Variation in Uncompensated Care Between Rural and Urban Hospitals
    Policy Brief
    North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Center
    Date: 06/2018
    The purpose of this brief is to compare uncompensated care in rural and urban hospitals and to describe how it varies across regions of the country.
  • Geographic Variation in the 2016 Profitability of Urban and Rural Hospitals
    Policy Brief
    North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Center
    Date: 03/2018
    This study describes the geographic variation in 2016 profitability of critical access hospitals (CAHs), other rural hospitals (Medicare Dependent Hospitals, Sole Community Hospitals, and rural Prospective Payment System (PPS) hospitals denoted as "ORH"), and urban PPS hospitals by census region, census division, and state.

2017

  • The Financial Importance of Medicare Post-Acute and Hospice Care to Rural Hospitals
    Policy Brief
    North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Center
    Date: 07/2017
    This brief describes Medicare post-acute and hospice care provided by hospitals in rural areas by characterizing the variation in the number of rural hospitals that provide PAC and hospice care, the average amount of Medicare revenue rural hospitals receive for these services, and the financial importance of PAC and hospice care to rural hospitals.

2015

  • The 21st Century Rural Hospital: A Chart Book
    Chartbook
    North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Center
    Date: 03/2015
    This chartbook presents a broad profile of rural hospitals and includes information on location, who they serve, services they provide, how they ensure outpatient services for their communities, other community benefits they provide, and financial performance. Each page includes charts comparing rural hospitals to each other and to urban hospitals.

2010

2006

2005

  • Trends in Skilled Nursing and Swing-Bed Use in Rural Areas, 1996-2003
    North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Center
    Date: 12/2005
    This paper examines trends in the delivery of skilled nursing facility (SNF) services in rural areas during a time of dramatic change in Medicare payments for acute and post-acute care. It focuses on the role of rural hospitals in providing SNF services as they respond to the new reimbursement environment.
  • Cesarean Section Rates in Rural Hospitals
    North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Center
    Date: 03/2005
    This findings brief examines childbirth delivery patterns in rural hospitals and compares the C-section rate in rural hospitals to that in urban hospitals using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample.

2004

  • Cesarean Section Patterns In Rural Hospitals
    North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Center
    Date: 11/2004
    This paper examines childbirth delivery patterns in rural hospitals and compares the cesarean section rate in rural hospitals to that in urban hospitals.

2003

2001

  • Rural Hospital Wages and the Area Wage Index: 1990-1997
    North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Center
    Date: 01/2001
    This findings brief examines whether incremental changes to the hospital wage index have made it more equitable across regions and how these changes have impacted rural hospitals.

2000